Monday, May 25, 2020

The Concept of Perfectionism Essay - 1472 Words

The Concept of Perfectionism Do you push yourself to be the best? Do you get mad at yourself for not doing the best? Do you delay assignments till the last possible limit because of fear of rejection? Do you feel horrible when work isn’t done to your best ability of when minor failures seem like catastrophic ones? These are all signs of what is known as perfectionism (Pacht 1984). If you seem to agree with most of these things then you might be a perfectionist. According to Webster’s dictionary, it states that perfectionism is a disposition which regards anything less than perfect, unacceptable. Many people in the world suffer from perfectionism. So is that case of Mike Bellah. His perfectionism lead him to a lifestyle where he lost†¦show more content†¦Second the fear of making mistakes: one may not answer a question in class for fear of mistakes, or delay projects because of fear that it may be wrong in the end. Third is fear of disapproval: if one lets others see their flaws, they fear they will no longer be accepted, and try to protect themselves from criticism, rejection and disapproval. Four is the all-or-none thinking: perfectionists think that they are worthless if their projects aren’t done perfectly. If one gets B, instead of an A, they might think that they are a total failure. Fifth is the overemphasis on shoulds: They live in a life of standards and rules to lead their life. With an overemphasis on what they need to do, they forget what they want. Last is the belief that others are easily successful: perfectionists see others accomplishing things and think that they do it with minimum effort and little stress. They keep viewing their efforts and unending and insubstantial. 3 These causes of perfectionism make those with the disorder to shut out the world, along with many other results (S.P.C.C. 2000). The effects of perfectionism can be small or they can lead to other problems. The cycle of perfectionism as stated by the SUNY Potsdam Counseling Center can lead people to an unhealthy life. First, perfectionists set unrealistic goals. Second, they fail to meet these goals becauseShow MoreRelatedA Critique on the Thesis1383 Words   |  6 PagesA Critique on the Thesis: Shirley, C.C.S. (2004) The Relationship among Eating Attitudes, Slimming Behaviors and Perfectionism in a Non-Clinical Population, Hong Kong University e-theses data base This paper is to critique a thesis titled The Relationship among Eating Attitudes, Slimming Behaviors and Perfectionism in a Non-Clinical Population by Shirley, C.C.S. (2004).This thesis can be found on the database of Hong Kong University. This report mentions the slimming pheromone in Hong Kong, andRead MoreUnderstanding The Vulnerability, Perfectionism, And Shame From The Book Daring Greatly By Brene Brown1600 Words   |  7 PagesVulnerability in Nursing Practice and Leadership The concept of vulnerability can be seen on a daily basis in the nursing profession. From working effectively as a team to having difficult conversations with a patient, nurses must be engaged in their own feelings to understand how that can influence the way they provide care or deal with stressors in the healthcare setting. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the concepts of vulnerability, perfectionism, and shame from the book Daring Greatly (2012)Read MorePersonal Values : An Individual And How I Act1217 Words   |  5 PagesI want to see myself. I despise being financially unstable because my family always told me that a man without money is a man without ambition. I was taught to be a go getter and keep getting money by any means necessary. My family instilled this concept into me because they taught me that a man must have income to be successful or be a man at all. Thus, feeling broke and penniless makes me feel less of a man and affects my pride. For example, like many in the millennial generation, I find myselfRead MorePuberty Of Hormones And Adult Physical Development1475 Words   |  6 Pagesincluding anorexia and bulimia. Perfectionism is when an individual sets very high expectations for themselves that many see as unreasonable. It is also one of the leading causes of eating disorders in teenagers. There are two different types of perfectionism, personal standards (PS) and evaluative concerns (EC). Personal standards perfectionism â€Å"...involves the setting and pursuit of high personal standards...† (Boone, Luyten, Soenens 1). Evaluative concerns perfectionism â€Å"involves overly critical evaluationsRead MoreLiterature Review : Self Esteem Essay2250 Words   |  9 Pagesthe conventional term of self-concept, which incorporates everything known about the self, such as beliefs, values, and appearance and even name and race. Although self-esteem is derived from self-concept, their differences are significant. Self-esteem is a wide-ranging concept concerned with the internal attitudes about oneself, both positive and negative, and can be considered as an indicator in psychological well-being (Padham and Aujla, 2014), whilst self-concept refers to the entirety of cognitiveRead MoreOptimism1666 Words   |  7 Pagesview  that interprets situations and events as being best (optimized), meaning that in some way for factors that may not be fully comprehended, the present moment is in an optimum state. The concept is typically extended to include the attitude of hope for future conditions unfolding as optimal as well. The more broad concept of optimism is the understanding that all of nature, past, present and future, operates by laws of optimization along the lines of  Hamiltons principle  of optimization in the realm ofRead MoreRamayana Essay750 Words   |  3 Pagesmany generations of the Hindu culture have been modeling their society after, for over two thousand years. It has been an influential teaching for children and scholars of all ages because of its simplicity and exemplary concepts and virtues of the Hindu people. From childhood most Indians learn the characters and incidents of this epic and they furnish the morals, ideals and wisdom of common life. This epic helps to bind together the many peoplesRead MoreAnalysis Of Anne Lamott s Shitty First Drafts Essay1042 Words   |  5 Pagessuccessful of writers will say that they actually hate writing, Lamott even compares it to pulling teeth. The intimidation of just starting to write becomes too much and leads writers to procrastinate. For many, an overwhelming, overbearing sense of perfectionism creeps in and creates anxiety and often lead to writer’s block. Everyone writes first drafts, but if a writer allows themselves to let go of all personal judgment and permits their writing to be â€Å"bad,† then they will most likely end up with greatRead MoreI Am A Guinea Pig Of Sorts1370 Words   |  6 PagesAs humans we create a certain image of ourselves , we are aware of who we are and measure our own worth. It s called self-concept, it is one of the most influential parts of our personality it helps us create the present and future way w e will act. One of the most common ways we do this is through the self-fulfilling prophecy. For this essay I became a guinea pig of sorts and experimented with this idea. Even before I took the rosenberg s Self esteem test I knew for a fact that I suffer from lowRead MoreAnxiety, Stress, And Frustration1646 Words   |  7 PagesSeveral students suffer from anxiety caused from academics. Research is supportive of the negative effects of anxiety and stress on the performance of all students. Classroom behavior can also be affected by anxiety. Anxiety can trigger low self-concept and a lack of motivation among school students. Student Performance and Anxiety Anxieties have spread and increased throughout many schools and have affected many adolescents. According to de Anda, Baroni, Boskin, Buchwald, Morgan, Ow, Gold Weiss

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Inequality Among Minorities - 1076 Words

Here I am three weeks away to complete this semester and I am required to write about a particular social problem that has affected my immediate or extended family. My first thought was: I do not have any social problem in my family. However, I was completely wrong. Everything started when forty five years ago I was born. Everyone was hoping for a boy. Ultimately, that was the tradition; the first child must be a boy†¦ Surprise, I was a girl. As I write this essay, I started to remember what my aunt used to tell me when she was asked about my father’s first reaction. She said: â€Å"Your daddy went to meet you; he entered the room with a big smile, but soon it faded.† Why? I asked. He was not happy because he wants you to be a boy, she replied.†¦show more content†¦Yes, we can. I am a human being, not an object. I am biologically a woman; I am not inferior. My own brother prohibited his wife to talk to me because I inspire women to revolt. In addition, I refused to learn how to cook, clean and work around the house; anyhow there was always a maid or my mother doing it for me. It is easy and common to find the problem and to talk about it; we all become experts. However, I believe this is a waste of time if it does not end with practical solutions and an action plan. This is my action plan; it is called EQUAL and stands for Education, Quality of life, Unity, Address, Liberty. 1. Education starts at home. Parents must stop teaching gender differences. Instead, they will focus on gender equality; we all are the same; we all are human beings. We have biological differences mainly in our reproductive apparatus and hormones. Right s and responsibilities are the same. Men and women are equally capable to perform a wide variety of tasks. Parents will encourage and assist their children to maximize their skills regardless their gender. 2. Quality of Life. Every person is capable to fulfill his/her own needs. Maslow’s (1943, 1954) hierarchy of needs model includes: a. Biological and Physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep. b. Safety needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, and freedom from fear. c. Social needs – belongingness, affection and love, -from work group, family,Show MoreRelatedInequality Among Minority Groups1766 Words   |  8 PagesA minority group is defined as â€Å"a subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their lives than members of a dominant or majority group†(1). Most minority groups are defined by common characteristics such as distinguishing skin colors, language, and are commonly tight-knit and have high amounts of marriages within the group. Members of these groups fall victim to colonialism, the maintenance of power for the long term from one territory by another. Victims of theseRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article The Model Minority Losing Patience 1278 Words   |  6 Pagesracial prejudice in America. Many may not realize this, but there is a growing problem between Asian-Americans and the American society. A growing issue is that minorities, especially Asian-Americans are being judged based on their race rather than the accolades and achievements they have accomplished. In the article â€Å"The model minority is losing patience,† the article discusses about a high school senior by the name of Michael Wang, who was denied six out of seven Ivy League colleges, even afterRead MoreRace And Ethnicity Searches For Equality1232 Words   |  5 Pagesethnic groups though we find that inequality is still a common issue. Racial and ethnic groups are expanding and outnumbering the dominant force, however, minority groups still have no rule against the dominant force. A minority is a subordinate group whose members have remarkably less control or power over the dominant force.(pg.4) Groups are ranked by pinpointing unique features of an individual in order to define them within a specific bracket. For example, a minority or subordinate group has fiveRead MoreTo Understand Poverty, It Is Crucial To Understand The1329 Words   |  6 Pagespoverty, it is crucial to understand th e systems that are involved in creating it. Inequality is embedded in many necessary institutions within society, which provides the basis for poverty to occur. Without this entrenchment of inequality amongst institutions and systems within society, it is clear that poverty would look very different. This paper will delve into the concept of racialized poverty and how racialized minorities have a greater propensity to remain in poverty due to a lack of accessibilityRead MoreBlau And Blau s Anomie Relative Deprivation Theory1155 Words   |  5 Pagesfurther this by stating that crime is more prevalent when minorities are unable to achieve their goals through the normal order, solely because of their statues as a minority (Exam 2, S 9). Anomie Relative Deprivation theory says crime is caused by economic and educational inequalities that are present and prevalent because of minority discrimination. This theory justifies its causal logic by stating that the presence of the racial inequ ality that leads to lower income and inability to attain otherRead MoreToronto Is A City Of Many Cultures And Ethnicities1149 Words   |  5 Pagesbetter life. However, the ugly truth is there exists unequal treatment for people from different classes and races in work, in education and in life. In fact, according to the chapter â€Å"Gap Between Rich and Poor† in Toronto’s Vital Signs, income inequality is growing faster here than in other cities in Canada and this affects everyone in Toronto (2015). Toronto now can be divided into three areas by neighbourhood average income or by different races’ aggregation, and this is something thatRead MoreQuestions On Inequalities Of Gender Inequality1625 Words   |  7 Pages1. Inequalities of Gender 1. Discuss the various forms of Gender inequality 2. Choose and discuss two theoretical perspectives used to analyze gender inequality 3. Make sure to compare the perspectives and choose which one you align yourself with Kerbo (1994) refer to gender as the socially constructed definition of what it mean to be female or male. Sex and gender are two separate terms. Sex refers to the biological characteristics. However, gender is completely different. Gender is sociallyRead MoreRacism : A Long Way From The End Of Colonialism Essay1740 Words   |  7 Pagesfrom Domination to Hegemony Historically, United States battle against racism has come a long way from the days of colonialism, slavery, racial hierarchies, racial demarcated reserves, strict policies and segregation. And yet, discrimination and inequality continue to persist in our society. Howard Winant, an American sociologist and race theorist, stated that, â€Å"the meaning of racism has changed over time. The attitudes, practices and institutions of epochs of colonialism, segregation†¦ may not haveRead MoreCultural And Economic Separation Of Usa1282 Words   |  6 Pagesfederal republic, comprising of 50 different states, Washington, D.C being its federal district. America stands at 3.8 million square miles with a population of over 320 million making it the fourth largest land area. This populous nation also ranks among the most culturally and ethnically diverse nation due to a high number of immigrants from various countries. Its vast land occupancy brings in a cocktail of different climatic zone s that support varieties of wildlife. America is a developed countryRead MoreSocial Inequality Essay1324 Words   |  6 PagesSocial Inequality What is social inequality? What are the sources of social inequality? For me, social inequality cannot be described in one sentence. Factors such as race, wealth, class, gender, age, among others all play roles into why people can sometimes be treated unfairly. However before I introspectively reflect on social inequality, there is one theory that suggests where today’s society is heading for me. Karl Marx is known as a prominent economic and political influence that lived

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Open Up My Own Child Care Center - 980 Words

I am interested in majoring in child development to open up my own child care center. Because of my interest I decided to some research in the subject of child care and preschools, this was done by interviewing professionals about this careers. During my research I learned a lot of valuable information of how to prepare for my career with my education and getting started in this business. I interviewed Miss Jackson at Melody Lane Preschool in Logan, Utah. I also interview Mrs. Anderson at Amy’s Child Care and Preschool in Logan, Utah. The first interview that I would like to describe in more details in my interview with Miss Jackson. Miss Jackson’s position is the head teacher at Melody Lane Preschool. She graduated from Utah State University with a degree in early childhood and elementary education. She talked about how she got a lot of on hands experience with her degree which helped her build her resume. To open up your own preschool you need a degree in the field of early childhood education and you have to make sure you keep up with continuing your education as time goes on. This involves taking a few classes here and there during your career. You also need to have your food handles permit and CPR and first aid certificate. If you are the owner of the preschool you pay for your continuation of education and all your certificates. If you are just interested in being a teacher and do not own a preschool, it is most likely that the owner will pay you to get your firstShow MoreRelatedI Am Working At A Child Care Center1348 Words   |  6 Pagesworking at a child care center, and enjoy learning about the different ways to run a center and the new information available to us. I have worked at two child care centers, and while the curriculum and rules are different, the goal of having the best quality of service for the parent is the same. Providing for parents and wanting the best for every student by having staff who wants to work and wants to do everything they can to supply the best for children is how to deliver quality care. After finishingRead MoreThe Career Of A Daycare1013 Words   |  5 PagesStarting a Daycare Have you ever not wanted to get up to take your child to daycare? One would wanna open a daycare because they love children especially babies. One love’s taking care of them, loves seeing them laugh, fall over, playing, and explore. The career of opening a daycare is a enormous job ,due to the requirements, and the study of children at different stages. This research will describe the career of a daycare center, what is required to become a successful daycare teacher and the impactRead MoreMy Philosophy Toward Child Development876 Words   |  4 PagesI will need to develop an Operating Budget considering many things, including caregiver salaries, cleaning supplies cleaning services, leasing agreement, utilities (gas, water, sewer, electricity), learning supplies and other expenses. My plan needs to be successful and efficient. There is a need to prepare and employee handbook with specific rules and policies in regard to attendance, timely arrival, pay schedule, a procedure to request time off and employee discipline procedures, staff certificationRead MorePrograms and Curriculum Planning1729 Words   |  7 Pageschildren based on the curriculum formed by the board of education. Child care centers usually form curriculums based around what program the center is accredited by through the state. For an example, here in Georgia we have a program name â€Å"Bright from the Start† which has standards each center must meet to be on the program and have curriculum for each child care center to follow. Whether it is a school system or childcare center administrators and teachers must work together to teach from the curriculumsRead MoreRequirements Of The Family :985 Words   |  4 Pagesneeds, who is active yet frustrated due to his inabilities. My given family required a childcare, which should be no more than a 10 minute drive as both parents work and have to reach their workplaces; therefore, the children should go to the same centre. This will m ake it easier for the parents to pick up and drop them off easily. As for the holistic growth of their one year old daughter, she needs to have other children of her own age around. Their three years old son needs adequate space toRead MoreThe Career Field Of Early Childhood Education1746 Words   |  7 Pagesearly childhood education deals with teaching and education young children, commonly at a preschool level. Early childhood education appeared as a separate branch of education after several studies were conducted and told us that the time before a child goes to kindergarten are the most important for developing their learning abilities and social skills. Studies were conducted by the Department of Education, and many other government organizations in different countries. The increasing awarenessRead MoreFactors That Play Into Choosing What Type Of Childcare Facilities787 Words   |  4 Pagesfacility to open. Some questions to ask are how many children do I wish to have? How about the age range for the children in the center? The operating hours as well as operational days will determine what type of childcare you will have to start. A child care center extends child care services, covering early learning openings, for a set tuition in a center based setting. Child care centers are typically licensed by the state. Several states excuse particular kinds of child care centers from licensingRead MoreHome Day Care vs Center Based Care Essay1431 Words   |  6 Pages121-049 16 March 2011 Home Day Care verses Center Based Day Care Choosing between center-based day care and home-based day care can be a very harrowing experience for a parent. The following evaluation may be helpful in choosing the best fit for your day care needs. Although many parents may choose center-based care, as a parent I prefer home day care in favor of its scheduling, environment, pricing, and amenities. Home-based day care takes place in a day care providers home, which resultsRead MoreCritical Thinking On The Classroom1165 Words   |  5 Pagesanswer him/herself. Critical thinking is an important component of any classroom. No matter the age group, these skills stay with a child for the rest of his or her life. As a teacher, it is important to understand what critical thinking pertains to and how to structure part of your lesson plan around developing critical thinking skills. With the Children’s Center being a play-based learning environment, incorporating critical thinking skills in the classroom is less complex than one might thinkRead MoreCode Of Ethical Conduct For Early Childhood Programs1716 Words   |  7 PagesAs the new director of a childcare center serving families from a high-risk community, I would look to the National Association for the Education of Young Children’s (NAEYC) Code of Ethical Conduct Supplement for Early Childhood Program Administrators for guidance in how to conduct myself in a responsible and professional way (Baptiste Reyes, 2009). This supplement was adopted July 2006 for the purpose of giving administrators whose programs care for young children guidelines to help them make

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Employee Motivation in the Organization a Case Study of Nigerian Ports Authority Essay Example For Students

Employee Motivation in the Organization: a Case Study of Nigerian Ports Authority Essay CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Of all the factors of production, labour is the most important factor of production, which is supplied by the employees. The success or failure of any enterprise is therefore ultimately predicated on the willingness or otherwise of the people who supply the labour Force. A manager plays an important part in coordinating the efforts of individual workers to active organizational objectives. His work also include planning, organizing, leading, directing and supervising workers so that they can willingly, and happily contribute their best to the accomplishment and attainment of corporate objectives. It is pertinent to acknowledge the fact that people are unique because they have different needs, different ambitions, different attitudes and desires, different levels of knowledge and skills as well as different potentials. A manager should recognize these differences and devise different motivational programmes to meet individual needs. If an individual’s need is satisfied he will be motivated to produce more – All motivational programmes try to create conditions that encourage workers to satisfy their needs on one hand and to accomplish the organisation’s objectives on the other hand. Motivation is therefore seen worldwide as an inevitable panacea for increase productivity not only in the industrial or social setting but also in the institutions of higher learning. Psychologist, sociologist, anthropologist and management experts have propounded relevant theories buttressing the significance of motivation. Abraham Maslow (1954)1 in his hierarchy of needs theory opinion, â€Å"that an individual have five basic categories of needs that motivate him to action. These comprise physiological, safety, social ego and self-actualization of needs. These needs are arranged in a hierarchical order starting from the lowest which is the physiological to the highest i. e. self actualization needs†. A need once satisfied ceases to motivate while those not yet satisfied energies or motivate behaviour. Maslow therefore believes that motivated behaviour is goal directed, sustained, and consequently results from internal drives or needs that gear a person into action. If motivated, behaviour results from felt needs, then invariably, the manager wishes to motivate behaviour must be sensitive to those operatives needs and desires his subordinates feels or else he must take some steps to create a feeling of needs within his workers. According to Ubeku (1975)2, â€Å"it used to be thought that a good and successful manager was the one who stood above his men and showered order on them to obey. A man who decides for his men not only what to do but how it should be done. They must conform otherwise they would either be disciplined or dismissed outright. He was the slave driver and bulldozer. He need not consult his men as they had no ideas to put forward. He knew what was good for them and did it†. There is no doubt that a measure of strictness is necessary indeed essential, but gone are the days of rigid control and direction. The relationship are becoming more impersonal to get people to work effectively in these changed circumstances a different approach is necessary. Management that is determined and wiling to maintain its good image and status must focus on plans and strategies that will enable it achieve its set objectives. When there is harmony in an organisation it reveals that workers satisfied and are happy with their jobs. Such workers will certainly show their energies, efforts, wisdom, intelligence etc to assist management in achieving its objectives increase productivity, efficiency and maximize profit. Moreover, knowledge about motivational practices can have implications for understanding employee’s behaviour that are important for the academician, managers in the organization. 1. 2PROBLEM ANALYSIS The problems of employees motivation in organization has been a perennial one. According to Glueck (1980), â€Å"There are three critical factors that affects motivation and these are individual needs, the nature of the job and the work environment. In addition to the above, other major factors could be responsible for workers low level of motivation are poor wages and salaries, lack of incentives unpleasant working conditions, poor supervision, lack of opportunity for advancement, non-participation of employees in setting organizational objectives, poor personal policy, lack of opportunity for advance, non-participation of employees in setting organizational objectives, poor personnel policy, lack of job security and non appreciation and acknowledgement of good efforts of workers†. Commenting on the workers negative attitude to work, McGregor (1960)4 in his theory X assumptions ostulated that the average human beings has an inherent dislike for work and will try to avoid it if possible. One of the causes of employee’s dissatisfaction and low morale may be related to inadequate working environment as this may lead to high employee turnover. Hertzberg, (1957) supported this view when he identified working environment as one of the factors that causes employee dissatisfaction. Lastly, the uncertainty regarding employees job security workers whose job security is not guaranteed, are not encouraged or motivate to put in their best. . 3PURPOSE OF STUDY The purpose of this study is to highlight and discuss variables (raised by management) that makes for worker’s motivated and job satisfaction towards increasing his productivity, and use those variables so raised as a standard to measure the degree or level of employee motivation and satisfaction in the business industry. The application and non-application of those variables will be determined, and it shall form the bedrock of the recommendations that would be given at the end of this investigation. 1. 4JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY The success or failure of any organization lies on its relative strength, which is a function of its productive capacity. If all the other factors of production are present, but that of labour needed to harness them fro effective utilization is lacking, the organization will not able to realize its objectives. Employee’s demoralization or lack of motivation has resulted in serious damage to many organizations in the areas of high rate of absenteeism, constant grievances, frequent industrial upheaval, high labour turnover, disciplinary problems and slow pace of economic development. Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) has its own share of these problems. Most of the staffs (i. e. lower staffs) are no longer dedicated to their work; hence show little or no commitment. The outcome of these researches will serve as an aid to the management of the organization in formulating appropriate policies, which will boost worker’s morale and motivate them to strive towards the attainment of the organization’s goal and objectives. 1. 5LIMITATION OF STUDY Based on the nature of the study, the intellectual capability of the respondents and the environmental settling of the study, one could hardly anticipate any major obstacle in the administration and collection of the questionnaire. Unfortunately, the above assumption did not reflect the correct picture as the researcher encountered various problems during the administration of questionnaire. Some staff collected and refused to complete them, while some misplaced theirs. Some, especially the junior members of staff could not understand some of the management terms used in some of the question because of their level of literacy and consequently, the researcher had to spend time explaining the questionnaires, on the ground that there was no financial gain accruing to them thereof. Others misconstrued the intention behind the whole exercise and feared that whatever information they volunteered could be used against them. It was gratifying to note that the highest collaboration and support were obtained from the senior staff. 1. 6PLAN OF STUDY The data obtained will be grouped on the basis of the responses to each of the questions contained in the questionnaires. In respect of the personal data of the respondents, this will be grouped into the categories of age, sex, marital status, education qualification etc. The responses to question bordering on the subject matter of motivation will also be grouped and analysed using parentages and the results appropriately interpreted. Personal interviews conducted on a selected number of both management/executive staff (senior executive junior executive) and junior staff will also be analysed. The first chapter gives a general overview of the research study is all about in the form of introduction? The second chapter is aimed at examining all the relevant theories propounded by eminent scholars of Business Administration, Psychology, Anthropology, sociology as well as books, periodicals and excerpts from learned journals covering the areas of this study. The third chapter gives a general insight to what the case study is all about. It introduces the organisation, its objectives and functions, its facilities and services. It also analyses the problems and benefits. The fourth chapter will expatiate in fuller details the methodology adopted, giving the actual number of questionnaires distributed to different departments. The fifth chapter will do a thorough analysis of data collected; it will also test the hypotheses and interpret the results obtained. This will help in determining the extent at which the organization is motivating its employees. The sixth chapter gives the finding, recommendations and conclusions. 1. 7RELEVANT RESEARCH QUESTIONS (1)What role has incentives played in motivating workers towards increased productivity? 2)How has the movement of subordination in decision-making motivated them towards increasing productivity? (3)To what extent has advancement and growth within the organization, motivated workers towards increased productivity? (4)To what extent has good working environment guarantee job satisfaction? (5)What effect does security have on workers productivity? 1. 8DEFINITION OF TERMS In this research work the followin g words are defined for the purpose of clarity: Theory: And idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain something about life or the world, especially one that has not yet been proved to be true. Hierarchy:A system within an organization in which people has authority and control over the people in the rank below them. Wages:Earning of employee either on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Salary: Money received as payment from the organization one works for, usually paid to him every month. Fringe Benefits: An additional service or advantage given pith a job besides wages, these of not normally attract the payment of tax. Motivation:Anything done to inspire the workers and give them the urge to work harder and increase productivity. Staisafction: A feeling of pleasure because one has something or has achieved something. Job Security: Stability of work and the assurance that salaries would be paid if and when due Industrial disputes: Conflict between employers and employees NPA: Nigerian Ports Authority REFERENCES 1. Agbalo, J. O. NATURE OF MANAGEMENT University of Ibadan Press (1962)Pg. 66. 2. Gleuck, W. F. MANAGEMENT (2nd Edition) The Dryden Press (1980) Pg. 161. 3. Koontz, O’ Donnell and Wahrich MANAGEMENT MC Graw-Hill International Books Co. (1982) Pg. 614 4. Ubeku, A. K. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENTIN NIGERIA Ethiopia Publishing Corp. , Benin (1975) Pg. 291. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK From time immemorial, organisations were established to accomplish certain objectives. The functions of the manager in the attainment of set goals cannot be underestimated. With the increased complexity of the society and the increasing size of organizations, managers’ decisions can have a far-reaching impact on the society. They can be defined as groups of persons who influence other workers to contribute their best to the attainment of corporate objectives. Management therefore involves the process of utilizing material and human resources to accomplish designated objectives. It involves the organisation, direction coordination, and the evaluation of the people to achieve the set goals. A manager who wishes to succeed in meeting set objectives must pay particular attention to the human factors in the organisation. According to Frederick H. Harbinson and Charles A Myers1, â€Å"In modern society, industrialization is an almost universal goal towards which all nations are marching. The underdeveloped countries are striving to industrialize as a mean of accelerating economic progress; the advanced countries seeks to broaden and to extend industrialization in order to achieve ever-higher standards of living and greater economic power in the march towards industrialization, capital technology and natural resources are but passive agents. The active forces are the human agents who create and control the organization and institutions which modern industries require. They are the ones who build and manage the enterprise which combine natural resources technology and human efforts, for productive purposes†. To be able to achieve set goals a manager should create conducive atmosphere that will inspire and motivate the workers. There is therefore the necessity of building motivating factors into organizational roles; the staffing of these roles and the entire process of directing and leading people must be built on knowledge of motivation. 2. 2CONCEPTS OF MOTIVATION The word motivation has different definitions, as there are different authors. It comes from a Latin term â€Å"Movere† which means to move. Horngreen2 defines motivation as â€Å"the need to achieve some selected goals together with the resulting drive that influences actions towards that goal†. In support of the above definitions, Ifeachukwu3 sees motivation as a driving force that stimulates an individual into action. Kelly4 says that motivation has to do with the forces that maintain and later the direction, quality and intensity of behavior. While Jones5 opinion is that motivation has to do with â€Å"how behaviour get started, is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organization while all of this is going on. On their part, Lynn and O. Grandy6 sees motivation as â€Å"a process of stimulating employees towards the desired goal of an organization. Karn and Glimer7 say that motivation is essentially made up of two aspects – first, basic needs that individuals have and second, conscious effort to gratify and satisfy them. They see motivation as a direct behaviour to satisfy desired needs. From the above definitions, motivation can be viewed in terms of what energizes; human behaviour, how this behaviour is directed or channeled, and how the behaviour can be maintained or sustained. Since managers are often held responsible for completing the task performed by an organisation, they need to induce people to contribute their efforts to the performance of the task. They should therefore aim at the creation and maintenance of an environment for the performance of the individuals working together in groups towards the accomplishment of common objective. It is obvious that managers cannot do this job without knowing what motivates the workers. The necessity of building motivating factors into organizational roles, the staffing of these roles and the entire process in directing and leading people must be built on a second knowledge of motivation. It is evident that motivation plays a substantial part in the determination of the level of performance of employees in an organization. A manager should develop some innate abilities, which will assist him in motivating subordinates. He must be a good listener and demonstrate to the employees that he cares about hem, develop and encourage team effort etc. the manager should however realize that motivational factors cannot be generalized for every worker. In human organization, we find a number of individuals working together towards a common end, i. e. the collective purpose of the total organization. Each of these individual is bring to the work situation a different background of personal and social experiences and the demands of a particular employee makes depend not only upon his physical needs but also upon his social needs as well. Those social needs and the sentiments associated with them vary with his early personal history and social conditioning as well as with the needs and sentiments of people closely associated with him both inside and outside the work. A manager should realize that individuals differ in personality, perception, background and experience and would consequently be motivated by different motivation factors. According to Mc Farland. 8 â€Å"To understand what motivates employees, we must known something of their aims, wants, needs and values. We must also observe their actions in organizations as they try to fulfil their needs†. He also emphasized that the motivational could be: (a)The forces and influences operating within the individual such as need for increased salary or benefit. (b)Internal influences in the organization such as the organization’s structural design, company climate, and communication patter, etc. (c)External influences in the organization’s environment, which may be social, cultural, political, economic, etc From the foregoing, it is pertinent to note that a manager who realizes these differences in individual and are therefore prone to be motivated by different factors is on the right path to achieving organizational objectives. Diagram I illustrates the motivation. Need and want satisfaction chain. 2. 3THEORIES OF MOTIVATION A theory according to Koontz and O’Donnell can be defined as, â€Å"A systematic grouping of interrelated principles. Attempts to tie together significant knowledge and give it a framework†¦ In its simplest form, a theory is a classification, a set of pigeon holes, a filling cabinet in which facts can accumulate†. 9 Managers make use of organized knowledge and apply it to gain desired results. Managers theories when properly developed, proved, and used can enhance managerial efficiency and also increase efficiency in the use of human and material resources. These theories serve as a guide to managerial performance in their daily activities. Managers have a lot to gain by thorough mastery of theories particularly those bordering on motivation. They will assist him in developing ways of handling both human and non-human problems in organization. Various theories of motivation as a means of propelling workers to increase productivity have been propounded. DIAGRAM 1 MOTIVATION THE NEED WANT SATISFACTION CHAIN Source:Koontz et al (1980) Motivation is seen as involving a chain reaction, starting out with felt needs, resulting in wants or goals sought, which give rise to tensions (i. e. unfulfilled desire, then causing action toward achieving goals, and finally satisfying wants. Explaining the chain further, it should be that expected for physiological needs. 2. 4HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY The above theory is credited to Abraham H. Maslow, a Psychologist. He believes that man is a perpetually wanting animal and rarely reaches a state of complete satisfaction except for a relatively short time. He sees human needs in a form of hierarchy, arranged in an ascending order from the lowest to highest. The implication of this hierarchical nature of human motivation is important for an understanding of why people behave as they do. The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory can be presented in a diagrammatic form thus: SELF ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM NEED SOCIAL NEED SAFETY NEED PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS According to him needs are arranged in the following (1)Physiological Needs; These are the basic needs for sustaining human life itself; food, clothing, shelter, sleep and sexual satisfaction (2)Security nd safety needs: These are the needs to be free from phsycial danger and the fear of loss or a job. It is therefore important that in an organization workers should be rewarded for good performance. Such reward may be material or non-material in nature. This will help to raise the morals of the workers property, etc. (3)Affiliation or acceptance needs: Since people are social beings, they n eed to belong, to be accepted by others. These are the needs for affiliation, giving and receiving affection and for friendship. 4)Esteem Need: This si the desire to be held in high esteem and to be respected by others, this kind of need produces such satisfaction such as power, prestige, status, and self-confidence. (5)Need for self-actualization: It is the desire to become what one is capable of becoming – to maximize one’s potential and accomplish something. The Lessons from Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Although researchers have raised questions about the accuracy of the hierarchical aspects of these needs, identification of the kinds of needs is useful to managers. Lawler et al (1972) researching on Maslow’s work collected data on 187 managers in two different organizations within the time span of six months to one year. They found little evidence to support Maslow’s theory that human needs conform to a hierarchy. However, they found that there were two levels of needs, viz Biological and other needs, and that the other needs would emerge only when biological needs were reasonably satisfied. They found also that at a higher level, the strengthen of news varied with individuals, in some individuals social needs predominated and in other self actualization needs were strongest. Mike Hunt EssayFrankly speaking, money is a very important factor in the life of employees of all categories, especially in the developing countries of the world as Nigeria. With money, one can buy essential goods and services. Apart from its economic value as a means of exchange for the allocation of economic resources, it also serves as a social value speaking about the importance of money as a motivator Keith Davis said: â€Å"All of us have seen its importance as a status symbol of those who have it and can thus save it, spend it consciously or give it generously. Money does have status value,, when it is being received and when it is being spent. It represents to employees what their supervisor thinks of them in more than mere economic terms. It is also an indication of one employee’s relative status compared with other employees. It has as many value so as it has possessors. †24 From the above, one can see the degree of importance attached to money as a motivator especially in this country. Maslow’s need-hierarchy theory as well as Hertzberg’s motivation – hygiene theory or Alderfer ERG theory emphasis motivation as a function of human needs satisfaction. Equity theory on the other hand draws attention to the role of social comparison in influencing satisfaction. In spite of the difference in their theories, there seems to be a consensus among the theorists that satisfactory job attitude are the function of congruence between the needs of an individual and the job situation. It is assumed that when the characteristics of a job are compatible with the needs of a worker, he will experience job satisfaction and also be motivated and vice versa. The success or failure of any organization depend son the availability of both human and material resources. If labour is properly harnesses and motivated, it would leads to the attainment of organization objectives. In order to motivate workers, job security, good working condition opportunity for growth and advancement, recognition, good supervision, promotion, comparable salary and wages, attractive fringe benefit, encouragement of interpersonal relationship, etc should not be ignored. There should be an effective manager or leader who should be able to plan, organize, control and integrate all the various factors of production to achieve a harmonious relationship. REFERENCES 1)Adam, J. S. (1965) â€Å"Inequity in Social Exchange† in L. Berkowitz (ed) ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY New York Academic Press. Pg. 267-300. (2)Black Henry C. BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY St. Paul Ministries, West 1957 Pg. 634 (3)Davis Keith HUMAN BEHAVIOUR AT WORK New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. 1972. Pg. 458. (4)GLUECK W. F. MANAGEMENT. The Dryden Press (2nd Edition). P g. 174. (5)Hall, D. T. and Nougaim â€Å"An Examinaiton of Malsow’s Need Hierarchy in Orgnaizaiotnal Setting†. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE. Vol. 3 No. 1 February 1968 Pg. 2-35. (6)Harbinson, Frederick H. a dn Charles A. Myers MANAGEMENT IN INDUSTRIAL WORLD: AN INTERNATIONAL ANALYSIS New York: McGraw-Hill Books Co. Inc. 1959. Pg. 3. (7)Hodgetts Richard M. and Steven and Altman ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Canada: W. B. Saunders Company 1979. Pg. 99. (8)Horngreen C. T. INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT ACOCUNTING (4th Edition) New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd. 1980. Pg. 244. (9)Ibid Pg. 636 (10)Ibid Pg. 30 (11)Ifechukwu, J. A. O â€Å"Work Attitude in Nigeria† MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA, Nigeria Institute of Management Oct. 1977. Pg. 35 (12)Jones, M. R. NEBRASKA, SYMPOSIUM ON MOTIVATION Lincoln, Nebraska University of Nebraska Press 1935 Pg. 14. (13)Karn Glimer READINGS IN INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS PSYCHOLOGY New York: Mc Graw-Hill Books Inc. 1962 Pg. 17. (14)Kelly, Joe ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR (Revised ed. ) Homewood Inc. Pg. 279 (15)Koontz, H. Cyril O’Donnell and H. Wahrich MANAGEMENT Mc Graw-Hill International Books Company 1983 Pg. 13. (16)Koontz, et al op. cit. Pg. 635 (17)Lawler, E. E. Suttle, J. L. (1972) â€Å"A Casual Correlaiotn Tets of the Need Hierarhcy Cocnept†. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND HUMAN PERFORMNACE. Vol. 7 No. 2 Pp. 265-287. 18)Lynn O’Grady ELEMENT OF BUSINESS London Houghton Mifflin Company 1978 Pg. 106. (19)Maslow, A. H. A THEORY OF HUMAN MOTIVATION Pengium Books. 1970 Pg. 30 (20)Mc Farland, Dalton E. MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES London: Collier-Macmillan Ltd. 1970 Pg. 377. (21)Mc Gregor Douglas THE HUMAN SIDE OF ENTERPRISE New York: McGraw-Hill International Books Co. 1960. Pp. 33-48. (22)Nwokoye N. E. , Ahiauzu L. INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS MANAGEMENT Macmillan Pub. Ltd. , London 1987. Pg. 64 (23)Schaffer, R. H. â€Å"Job satisfaction as Related to Need satisfaction in work†. PSYCHOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHY (1953) Vol. 67 No. 4 Pg. 3 (24)Steers Richard M. and Lyman, W. Porter MOTIVATION AND WORK BEHAVIOUR Mc Graw-Hill Book Co. 1983 Pg. 29. (25)Weick Karl E. (The Concept of Equity in the Perception of Pay†) ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY (1966) Vol. 11 Pp. 414-439. CHAPTER THREE PROFILE OF NIGERIAN PORTS AUTHORITY 3. 0INTRODUCTION Nigerian Ports Authority has been chosen as the area of study of this research and there is no how his research can be comprehensive without a brief account or discussion as to the establishment, corporate objective, corporate functions activities, divisions or departments, problem e. t. of N. P. A. In other words, this chapter is dedicated towards a brief account of the Nigerian Ports Authority (N. P. A. ). STATUTORY LAW The Nigerian Ports Authority was born on the 1st of April 1955 through the Port Act of 1954 out of what was then generally referred to as Nigerian marine. Prior tot his time and even before the evolution of modern Nigeria, the wide coast land stretching from Lagos to Port Harcourt had been a beehive of activities involving Africans and Europeans. Since when the 1st maritime contact was established between the West African sub-region and Europe in the 15th Century, a symbolic trade relation developed. The Bright of Benin, was opened up by John d-Aveiro a Portuguese in 1845. Captain Wyndham of Great Britain jointed the fray in 1553. But of all these, it was McGregor Liard a Britain, that got the credit of laying the foundation of modern shipping in Nigeria. After he had captained the first iron steamer to the Niger Delta Coast of Nigeria in 1832 he went a step further to establish the African Shipping Company in 1849. However, the year 1906 was symbolic in the evolution of Nigerian Ports Authority (N. P. A. ) as it was in that year hat Nigerian marine was created and charged with the responsibility of ports in Nigeria. The Nigerian marine dominated the scene for about 48 years before it metamorphosed into the Nigerian Ports Authority. The idea for the establishment of a central organization for ports administrations was mooted in the 1930s. But outbreak of the 2nd world war (1939-1945) prevented the crystallization of that idea. However in 1953, the project emerged when the governm ent issued a statement of policy on the establishment of the new ports regulatory body. On March 24, 1954, the Nigerian House of Representative passed the Port Act 1954 but the commencement date of operation was pushed to April 1st 1955 when Nigerian Ports Authority finally came into being. ZONAL DEVELOPMENT AND ALLOCATION PORT Following the establishment of Nigerian Ports Authority and the eagerness to commence full operation coupled with the zeal to making efficient and effective use of the abundant provision of coastal area, the Authority was divided into three zones viz: (1)Western Zone: Made of Apapa Port Complex, Tincan Island Port, Roro Port, and Inland Container Depot Ijora with Apapa as its headquarters. 2)Central Zone: Comprising Warri Port, Sapele Port, Koko Port, Burut Port, Aladja Steel Jetty, Escarvos, Forcados and Pennington Oil Terminal, Warri is the headquarters. (3)Eastern Zone: Has Port Harcourt Port, Federal Ocean Terminal, Federal Lighter Terminal, Okrika Refine Petroleum Oil Jetty, Crude Petroleum Terminal of Bonny, Brass, Qua-Iboe and Antan, and C alabar Port. Port Harcourt is its headquarters. FEATURES OF THE PORT ACT Some of the salient features of this Act were: (i)Terms, power and functions of the Authority ii)Power to the head of state to appoint ports. (iii)Establishes the Authority as a body corporate with perpetual succession name and to acquire and hold and dispose funds. (iv)Powers and functions of the respective officers of the Authority and Minister of Transport in relation to the body (v)Transfer of assets and the power of acquisition of their assets. (vi)Staff employment and discipline (vii)Details of financial provisions (viii)Provisions on land (ix)Authority to employ harbours masters and define their powers. (x)Regulate wharves and premises xi)Covers rates, dues, levies and who is liable for payment CORPORATE FUNCTIONS The statutory duties and major functions of the organization are:- (i)It is charged with the responsibility of providing and operating such cargo handling and quay facilities as may appear to t he organisation to best serve the public inertest in all Nigerian Ports Authority (ii)Charges with the responsibility of maintaining, improving and regulating the harbours and approaches there to in all ports of Nigeria presently open to Ocean going vessels and in such other ports as may be designed from time to time. iii)Charged with responsibility of dredging to desired depots and providing as well as maintaining pilotage services, lightly, lighthouse, buoys and other navigational aids in Nigerian Ports. (iv)Charged with the responsibility of carrying on the business of carrier by land or sea Stevedore, Wharfinger, warehouse/man or lighterman or any other business recommended or desirable for the purpose of the organization. (v)Responsibility of acquiring, constructing, manufacturing or repairing anything required for the purpose of the organization. Corporate objectives Having attained this high status, and bearing in mind the numerous responsibilities bestowed on it, the organisations et for its appropriate objective’s are as follows: (i)Making provision and operation of port facilities in Nigeria its dominant business. (ii)Expanding into new and related areas of activities or areas that are logical development of the skills. (iii)To manage the workforce as a resource and not merely as a cost. (iv)To be more customer oriented and therefore to open up and streamline its management structure as part of a larger effort to listen and respond to customers need. v)To offer neighbouring land locked countries unimpeded access to the sea. (vi)To corporate with neighbouring ports in the provision of common services (vii)To optimize the generation of sufficient offshore revenue. (viii)To maintain a credit worthy posture and attractive to national and international investors. (ix)To reform and modernize dock work in order to bring industrial harmony to the dock industry (x)To explore the possibility of attracting reputable international organization as technical parties. CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA As mentioned earlier, this research study focuses attention on the motivational factors as they affect all the members of staff of Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA). In analyzing the data, however, simple percentage was applied. Table 1:Distribution of Questionnaires CadreTotal NoNo. ReturnedNo. Properly DoneNo. Not properly Done Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff9 10 517 9 487 8 35- 1 13 Total70645014 Percentage100917822 Table 1 shows that 64 or 91% of the total questionnaire was returned, out of which 50 or 78% was properly answered and the rest 14 or 22% not properly field. Therefore our analysis was based on the 50 or 78% properly filled questionnaires. Table 2:Age Distribution of Respondents Cadre9 or -20-2930-4445-80Total Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff- 6 184 2 93 87 8 35 Total-24151150 Percentage-484022100 The above table shows that none of the respondents is under age of 20 years, while 24 or 48% and 15 or 30% falls within the sages of 20-29 years and 30-44 years respectively. The remaining 11 or 22% are above 45 years. This confirms that over 80% of the population falls within the main workforce while none is under 20 years. This may be due to the fact that the data was based on the number of respondents even though there were students on National Youth Service Corps programme in the company premises. Table 3:Marital Status of Respondents CadreSingleMarriedDivorced/ separatedWidow/ WidowerTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff- 3 197 4 16- 1 -7 8 35 Total22271-50 Percentage44542-100 Table 3 indicates that 22 or 44% are single, 27 or 54% are married and 1 or 2% divorced/separated none of the respondent is a widow/widower. Majority of them are married therefore susceptible to matrimonial responsibilities. Table 4:Sex Distribution Of Respondents CADREMALEFEMALETOTAL Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff6 5 91 3 68 35 Total401050 Percentage8020100 The table shows that 40 or 80% re males while 10 or 20% are females. It implies that there are more male employees to female ones in the company. Table 5:Educational Attainment of Respondents CadrePry. SixWASC/GCEHSCB. SCHigher DegreeTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff- 1- 23- 1 25 6 -2 1 -7 8 35 Total1023311350 Percentage20466226100 The table portrays the educational qualification of staff. 0 or 20% have just Primary School Certificate, 22 or 46% are Post Primary School certificate holders while 3 or 6%, 11 or 22% and 3 or 6% have ordinary diploma/advance level certificates, graduate and postgraduate certificate. A closer look at the entire table reveals that executive staffs are graduate while junior staffs are not well educated. Table 6:Length of Service of Respondents CadreUnder 5 years6-12yrs13-19yrsOver 20 yrsTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff1 3 104 3 111 1 121 1 27 8 35 Total141814450 Percentage28362818100 A look at this table indicates that 14 or 28% of the company staff have worked for less than 5 years. 18 or 36% for 6-12years. 14 or 28% for 13-19years and 4 or 8% have worked for over 20 years. This category demonstrates that most of the respondents have stayed long enough in the service to fully understand all the prevailing motivational factors as they affect them. Table 7:Length of Service of Respondents CadreVery GoodGoodFairPoorTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff1 -4 5 62 3 10- 197 8 35 Total115151950 Percentage2303028100 In response to the question of how the workers viewed their job in terms of satisfying their aspirations, 1 or 2% gave a very good response, 15 or 30% gave a good response, 15 or 30% gave a fair response and 19 or 38% gave a poor response. A total of 34 or 68% are not satisfied with their working environment and a total of 16 or 32% are satisfied with their working conditions. Table 8:Data collected on significant impact of condition of service on motivation CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff6 8 301 57 8 35 Total44650 Percentage8812100 The table shows that 44 or 88% accepted while 6 or 12% rejected the condition of service. It implies that the respondents will be motivated by an improved condition of service even though a great majority of staff approves the condition of service offered them, which is already in existence. Table 9: Data collection on motivation of increase in salary and fringe benefit CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff7 8 35- -7] 8 35 Total50-50 Percentage100-100 As indicated in this table, al the respondents agreed thtas an increase in their salary and fringe benefits would motivate them. It is not surprising that the entire respondents supported the motivating influence of increase in salary and fringe benefits. In the world over, people lay a high premium on the monetary benefits accruing to them from work. This does not only determine their social standing in the society but also accounts for their material well-being and standard of living. Table 10:Data collected on motivation of boss/subordinate Relationship CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff4 4 253 4 107 8 35 Total331750 Percentage6634100 Table 10, which probes into relationship between bosses and other workers, is very revealing. The responses of the staff are that 33 or 66% of the total number responded positively while 17 or 34% indicated a negative response. A good boss or leader should be able to build into work environment a harmonious relationship that promotes rapport, understanding and proper orientation. It should therefore provide the necessary guidance, clarity of direction and rewards necessary for effective performance. These elicit good relationship between bosses and subordinates Table 11:Data collected on relationship with colleagues CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff5 5 232 3 127 8 35 Total331750 Percentage6634100 In response to the data collected above 33 or 66% see such a relationship as a motivating factor while an insignificant number of 17 or 34% did not identify with such a motivating factor. There is obvious need for workers cordial relationship or friendly atmosphere to prevail in wok situation. Table 12:Data collected from respondent on participation in setting objectives in department CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff7 8 4- 317 8 35 Total193150 Percentage3862100 From the above table 19 or 38% are of the view that they participate in setting objectives in their various departments. A closer look at the table shows that all the executive staff takes part in decision making, while a significant number of 31 or 62% of the junior staff do not. Table 13:Data Collected on Job Satisfaction CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff5 4 122 4 237 8 35 Total212950 Percentage4258100 In respect of satisfaction derived by workers on their job, 21 or 42% of the staff agrees that it offers them the satisfaction they need while 29 or 58% indicates that it does not offer them the satisfaction they need. Table 14: Data Collected On Provision Of Accommodation As A Motivation Factor CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff7 8 35- -7 8 35 Total50-50 Percentage100-100 It shows that 50 or 100% of the shapely size indicated that provision of accommodation will motivate them. It implies that provision of accommodation is a great motivation due to the perfect response it generated. Table 15: Data On Provision Of Transportation CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff7 8 25- 107 8 35 Total401050 Percentage802080 The question of company providing the staff with transportation shows that 40 or 80% responded positively while 10 or 20% gave a negative response. From the table, it implies that most of the junior staff are provided with transportation. The 10 or 20% who gave a negative response are those that do not use the company staff bus wither due to the nearness of their homes and or that the staff bus do not ply their areas. Table 16:Data Collected From Respondents On Medical Facilities CadreVery goodGoodFairPoorTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff- -7 15- 4 20- -7 8 35 Total-2624-50 Percentage-5248-100 Table 16, shows that the provision of medical facilities is fairly good by the rating of the respondents. A total of 26 or 52% indicated that it was good. 24 or 48% showed it was fair. None of the respondent agreed that it was very good or poor. The dictum that health is wealth hold always and this should account for why proper attention should be diverted to the provisio n of a good health delivery system for the entire staff of the company. Table 17: Data Collected On General Welfare Services CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff7 8 35- -7 8 35 Total50-50 Percentage100-100 The entire responses to whether the provision of general welfare services would increase their level of productivity were uniform. All the three segments gave a positive response of 50 or 100%. There is no doubt that adequate provision of welfare facilities will act as a motivator on the employees. Table 18: Data Collected From Respondents On Car Loan Scheme CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff5 7 -2 1 -7 8 Total12315 Percentage802080 Majority of the respondents admitted that efficient administration of car loan scheme would act as a motivating factor. 12 or 80% gave an affirmative response while 3 or 20% did not see the loan as having a motivating influence. The table shows that the sample class for this question is the junior and senior executives. In view of transportation problem in Lagos, the efficient administration of the loan wil no doubt relieves a great burden on workers. This is however compounded by the astronomical increase in the prices of cars. Table 19: Data Collected From Respondents On Promotion CadreYesNoTotal Senior Executives Junior Executives Junior Staff7 8 35- -7 8 35 Total50-50 Percentage100-100 All the respondents admitted that they would be

Friday, April 10, 2020

Ways to Reduce Bullying free essay sample

Have you ever been bullied? Have you ever bullied someone? Sometimes what we think as simple teasing may amount to bullying in the eyes and the minds of someone with a sensitive mind. Therefore, this is a common occurrence which has repercussions which most of us may not foresee. Writing a bullying essay, can contain the feelings you had when either being bullied or bullying someone. On the other hand, it could be about the repercussions as mental trauma undergone by the victims. There are many ways in which to write this essay. However, firstly, we need to understand what bullying is. Defining Bullying Bullying is behaviour where one individual who is usually physically bigger act obnoxiously, annoying and physically and mentally disturbing another individual. Most often bullying comes from people who are either lacking in social skills or some form of personal affliction or a complex. Bullying is most common in young children. We will write a custom essay sample on Ways to Reduce Bullying or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page There are many instances where a small made child is often bullied by bigger and aggressive children. But we also see adults resorting to bullying younger children or more timid individuals. The Many Ways to Write There are many ways in which you can write the bullying essay. As it is a personal subject for many, they should try and avoid being too biased when writing the essay. You may be one who has been bullied many times during your life. This could affect your writing the essay if you are not careful. Why People Bully and Who is a Bully This topic will have you investigating the many reasons as to why bullying is done and what makes them do so. It does not matter if the bully is a child or an adult. Bullying will always remain a problem. Bullying comes from avoidance of facing a certain inadequacy or to reduce the fear of everyone seeing them for what they are. These are some elements which you can discuss when writing the essay. http://essay-writing-service. co. uk/blog/essay-writing/bullying-essay-a-topic-addressing-a-common-occurrence

Monday, March 9, 2020

How to Achieve Cultural Diversity in the School System

How to Achieve Cultural Diversity in the School System Cultural diversity as an issue wasnt even on the radar of most private school communities until the 1990s. To be sure, there were exceptions, but for the most part, diversity was not at the top of the list of priorities back then. Now you can see genuine progress in this area. The best evidence that progress has been made is that diversity in all its forms is now on the list of other issues and challenges facing most private schools. In other words, it is no longer a detached issue requiring resolution by itself. Schools seem to be making well-thought-out efforts to attract and retain faculty and students from a wide variety of societal backgrounds and economic sectors. The resources under The Diversity Practitioner on the National Association of Independent Schools site show the kind of proactive approach which NAIS members are taking. If you read the mission statements and welcome messages on most schools websites, the words diversity and diverse appear frequently. Set an Example and They Will Follow The thoughtful head and board members know that they must encourage diversity. Perhaps that has already been done at your school. If so, then a review of where you have been and where you are going should be part of your annual review activities. If you have not addressed the diversity issue, then you need to get started. Why? Your school cannot afford to turn out students who have not learned the lessons of tolerance. We live in a multicultural, pluralistic, global community. Understanding diversity begins the process of living in harmony with others. Communication enables diversity. Example fosters diversity. Every sector of the school community from head and trustees on down through the ranks must be proactive in listening, accepting and welcoming people and ideas which are different from their own. This breeds tolerance and transforms a school into a warm, welcoming, sharing academic community. Three Ways to Communicate Diversity 1. Hold Workshops for Faculty and StaffBring in a skilled professional to run workshops for your faculty and staff. The experienced clinician will open up sensitive issues for discussion. She will be a confidential resource which your community will feel comfortable turning to for advice and help. Make attendance mandatory. 2. Teach DiversityEmbracing the principles of diversity taught in a workshop requires everybody to put diversity into practice. That means reworking lesson plans, encouraging new, more diverse student activities, hiring different teachers and much more. Communication imparts knowledge which can breed understanding. As administrators and faculty, we send dozens of subtle messages to students not only by what we discuss and teach but, more importantly, by what we do NOT discuss or teach. We cannot embrace diversity by remaining set in our ways, beliefs and thoughts. Teaching tolerance is something all of us have to do. In many cases, it means shedding old practices and altering traditions and modifying points of view. Simply increasing a schools intake of non-Caucasian students will not make a school diverse. Statistically, it will. Spiritually it will not. Creating a climate of diversity means radically altering the way your school does things. 3. Encourage diversityOne of the ways you as an administrator can encourage diversity is to require compliance with school policies and procedures. The same kind of strict adherence to policy and procedure which makes cheating, hazing and sexual misconduct taboo should apply to diversity. Your staff must become proactive when it comes to encouraging diversity. Your staff must know that you will hold them just as accountable for your diversity goals as you will for teaching outcomes. Respond to Problems Are you going to have problems with diversity and tolerance issues? Of course. How you handle and resolve problems as they arise is the acid test of your commitment to diversity and tolerance. Everybody from your assistant to the grounds keeper will be watching too. Thats why you and your board must do three things to promote diversity in your school: Decide on policyImplement policyEnforce compliance with policy Is It Worth It? That nagging question does cross your mind, doesnt it? The answer is a simple and resounding Yes! Why? Simply because you and I are stewards of all that we have been given. The responsibility for shaping young minds and inculcating eternal values has to be a major part of that stewardship. Our abrogation of selfish motives and embracing of ideals and goals which will make a difference is really what teaching is all about. An inclusive school community is a rich one. It is rich in warmth and respect for all its members. Private schools say they want to attract more teachers of different cultures in order to achieve diversity. One of the leading authorities on this subject is Dr. Pearl Rock Kane, director of the Klingenstein Center at Columbia Universitys Teachers College and professor in the Department of Organization and Leadership. Dr. Kane admits that the percentage of black teachers in American private schools has risen, to 9% today from 4% in 1987. While this is commendable, shouldnt we go beyond 25% in order for our faculty lounges to begin to mirror the society in which we live? There are three things schools can do to attract black teachers. Look outside the box Private schools must go outside the traditional recruitment channels to attract  teachers of color. You must go to colleges and universities where these students are being trained and educated. Contact the deans and career services directors at all of Historically Black Colleges, as well as other colleges that focus on specific cultures and ethnicities. Develop a network of contacts at those schools, and take advantage of LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter, which make networking efficient and relatively easy. Be prepared to attract faculty who do not fit the traditional teacher profile Teachers of color have often spent years discovering their roots, developing a keen pride in their heritage, and accepting who they are. So dont expect them to fit into your traditional teacher profile. Diversity by definition implies that the status quo will change. Create a nurturing and welcoming atmosphere. The job is always an adventure for a new teacher. Starting in a school as a minority can be really daunting. So create an effective mentoring program before you actively recruit teachers. They must know there is somebody in whom they can confide or to whom they can turn for guidance. Then monitor your fledgling teachers even more carefully than you usually do to make sure that they settle in. The result will be a mutually rewarding experience. The school gets a happy, productive faculty member, and he or she feels confident in the career choice. The true make-or-break issue of hiring teachers of color may be the human factor. Independent school leaders may need to re-evaluate the climate and atmosphere of their schools. Is the school truly a welcoming place where diversity is tangibly honored? The human connection that is offered or not offered when a new person enters the school may be the single most important moment in efforts to recruit teachers of color. - Attracting and Retaining Teachers of Color, Pearl Rock Kane and Alfonso J. Orsini Read carefully what Dr. Kane and her researchers have to say on this subject. Then begin your schools journey down the road to true diversity.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Current health issues in relation to the Australian Health Care System Essay

Current health issues in relation to the Australian Health Care System - Essay Example Health Issue Statistics e.g. Incidence According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 6% of Australian adults experience depression on a regular basis. Among employed Australians, 3.6% Australians experience depression on a regular basis. The financial cost of depression, which is estimated to be more than 50 billion dollars annually in Australia, includes the direct treatment costs as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity. Depression also exacts financial as well as emotional costs within the family of the affected individuals. While Australian adults of different age groups have reported suffering from depression at one time or another, it would appear to be most prevalent among women in their 20s, men in their late 30s, and in elderly Australians of both genders (Haywood, Garrat, and Fitzpatrick, 2005). Many Australians do not feel that their negative feelings may actually be characteristic of depression. This makes them quite reluctant to seek for medical trea tment until they are almost driven to attempt suicide by the negative feelings. Population type affected e.g. gender, age, group etc According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2009), one in six Australian adults will experience serious depression on an annual basis. The high risk groups include teenagers, young adults, and the elderly people. While women are more likely to report feeling depressed and seek a relief for the negative feelings, Australian men are more likely to seek for more permanent ways, such as suicide, of dealing with depressing feelings. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2009), depression among Australian men is linked to other illnesses such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Australian men are more likely to leave episodes of depression unreported than Australian women. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2009), Australian men who are 65 years of age and above have the highest suicide rate in the nation, accounting for 29 suicides per 100,000 cases. A new Women's Health Australia research study has also provided evidence that Australian women between the ages of 28 and 33 tend to experience depression even more than their mothers, or even grandmothers, did. According to this study, one in five of these women goes regularly to doctors so as to get prescriptions for anti-depressants (Haywood, Garrat, and Fitzpatrick, 2005). Identify a range of factors which may affect the health of this client group including risk factors. Give consideration to any specific health and social circumstances of this client group. It is difficult to determine the exact factors that cause people to be depressed because there are so many factors that can trigger an episode of depression. In an Australian society, there are multiple factors that affect indigenous groups such as the Aboriginal community and result in an almost community-wide state of depression which afflicts the young as well as the old (Hunter, 2007). The Aborigines have to deal with racism, poverty, and feelings of detachment that are caused by the fact that their traditional values are for the most part irrelevant in the modern world (Hunter, 2007). This has spurred generational drug and alcohol abuse among the Aborigines which further exacerbates the incidence of depression among the community’s citizens. Among other Australians, there are factors such life traumas